Boerhaave Museum discovers unknown Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Microscope

The Netherlands is one Leeuwenhoek microscope richer. Studies at Museum Boerhaave have revealed that an tiny seventeenth-century object from a collection of Dutch silver doll’s house accessories – until now always viewed as an oddity – is in reality an authentic microscope of the type produced by Delft-based cloth trader Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, in the Dutch golden age. Examples of these instruments are extremely rare, and in terms of interest and importance are comparable to a Vermeer painting. The latest example was acquired by collector Bert Degenaar for his Planetarium Zuylenburgh collection in Oud-Zuilen. The microscope will be temporarily displayed at Museum Boerhaave, from June 3.

Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) was leading pioneer of microbiology, during the Dutch golden age. With his home-made instruments fitted with a single tiny lens, making them difficult to adjust, he discovered sperm cells, blood corpuscles and ‘animalcules’ or bacteria. His systematic and extensive series of observations led to his reputation as the founding father of microbiology. Microscopes produced by Van Leeuwenhoek achieved magnifications of up to 270 times; considerably more than the composite microscopes (consisting of multiple lenses) available at the time. This gave him a clear lead over other researchers. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was trained as a land surveyor and gauger of wine casks, but received no academic training; nonetheless, he published his ground-breaking observations in the leading scientific journal of the period, the Philosophical Transactions of the English Royal Society.

The recently identified Leeuwenhoek microscope raises the number of examples preserved worldwide to ten or eleven (there is still some doubt as concerns the authenticity of the example in Antwerp). Museum Boerhaave has two in silver and two in copper. To determine whether the new silver instrument truly is an original Leeuwenhoek, Museum Boerhaave compared this example with five Leeuwenhoek instruments of irreproachable provenance, in its own restoration workshop. The five examples were taken from the museum’s own Leiden collection, plus one from the Utrecht University Museum. The outcome of the optical examination and technical material inspection was that the new silver instrument is undoubtedly authentic, offering a magnification of 248 times. The only more powerful Leeuwenhoek microscope is that from the Utrecht collection.

The new Leeuwenhoek microscope will be officially revealed to the public on Tuesday June 2 at Museum Boerhaave, where it will remain on display for the next six months. After that period it will be exhibited in Utrecht, Oxford and University of California Berkeley Golub Collection. The unveiling in Leiden by Bert Degenaar, due to take place at 4 p.m., will be preceded by a public lecture by Dr. Huib Zuidervaart, a science historian affiliated to the Huygens Institute, in The Hague. Tiemen Cocquyt, who as curator at Museum Boerhaave was closely involved in the study to prove the authenticity of the silver Leeuwenhoek microscope, will then explain the research conducted by Museum Boerhaave.

Museum Boerhaave is the Dutch National Museum for the History of Science and Medicine. The aim of the museum is to promote interest in science in the Netherlands by attracting a wide public to visit its unique collection that tells the story of five centuries of innovation in the Netherlands. Museum Boerhaave constantly seeks to link its activities to current developments.

The collection of the Planetarium Zuylenburgh in Oud-Zuilen is one of the most remarkable private collections in the Netherlands. The focus of the collection (comprising more than one thousand antique objects from the 17th and 18th century) is on clocks, telescopes, microscopes and other old instruments for astronomy and land surveying.

Meteor Swarm Orionids reached coming days maximum

The next few days reached the swarm of Orionids its maximum. The swarm will probably be good to see. The Orionids have originated in Halley’s Comet every 76 years comes close to the sun and the earth. In 2061 the comet returns.

Above Netherlands was last weekend to see. A fireball The Working Group Meteors says it was a visible bright sphere. The working group was within an hour more than 20 reports of people who have observed the fireball. It was the fifth fireball which this year has seen over the Netherlands. Fireballs are meteors that are much brighter than normal. They are usually seen during a meteor shower.

The swarm of Orionids reached Wednesday, October 22 around 09:00 hours maximum. Under ideal conditions, there are about 23 meteors per hour expected. In total, by meteors from other flocks, about 33 meteors per hour visible.

The swarm of Orionids reached Wednesday, October 22 around 09:00 hours maximum. Under ideal conditions, there are about 23 meteors per hour expected. In total, by meteors from other flocks, about 33 meteors per hour visible.

No special equipment is needed to be able to observe meteors. When it is bright, the naked eye is sufficient. A deck chair and enough clothing provide extra comfort.

The Orionids are one of the wealthier meteor showers in our sky. In 1993 suddenly increased activity of the Orionids was observed. This indicates that there are local accumulations are in the stream of meteoroids that moves around the sun.

Meteors are popularly also called shooting stars. In reality, it is not about stars falling, but for tiny pieces of stone and gravel under high speeds entering the earth’s atmosphere and vaporize at about 100 km altitude.

Royal Eise Eijsenga Planetarium in Franeker receives Orrery Planetarium Zuylen Burgh

Royal Eise Eijsenga Planetarium in Franeker receives Orrery Planetarium Zuylen Burgh Old Pillars.

The Eise Eisinga Planetarium in Franeker is from the collection of Planetarium Zuylen Burgh received a beautiful contemporary version of the Orrery James Ferguson (1710-1776).
This planetarium instruments were made for educational reasons. The movements of the sun, earth and moon can be made easily. Clearly such an instrument Even things like the origin of the seasons, phases of the moon and even solar and lunar eclipses to explain clearly. As a kind of extra feature this tool offers the possibility to determine. The date of Easter This date is related to the phases of the moon.

The instrument table was created by Piet Jan de Ruiter, the clockmaker who was also responsible for the construction of Planetarium Zuylen Burgh in Ancient Pillars, a planetarium inspired by the famous Eise Eisinga Planetarium.

Planetarium Ferguson is a beautiful and useful addition to the explanation, receiving visitors to the Eise Eisinga Planetarium. The instrument gives the possibility to show, making it sometimes difficult jobs can be explained. Simply the movements of the heavenly bodies accelerated It has been a nice place in the Planetarium Chamber.

The donation is the result of the pleasant cooperation with Bert Degenaar Planetarium Zuylen Burgh and Adrie Warmenhoven of hetEise Eisinga Planetarium, two institutions that both focus on the popularization of astronomy.

Caption: Bert Degenaar (left), Planetarium Zuylen Burgh and Adrie Warmenhoven at the planetarium instrument.

Interview Bert Degenaar

The initiator of “Art Residence”

Bert thumbBERT DEGENAAR (56) had long been an art dealer in Amsterdam’s Spiegelkwartier. He owns the Planetarium Zuylen Burgh, located in the same country house. This monument dating from 1651 in Oud-Pillars, near Utrecht, was once owned by the family of Tuyll of Serooskerken. Also owns the adjacent Degenaar Logement Swaenenvecht, former rectory, whose oldest part dates back to early 17th century.

Jupiter’s storm is shrinking faster

In the middle of the planet Jupiter is centuries been a giant red spot, a huge storm, and that spot is getting smaller. The average is now only 16,500 kilometers, smaller than ever measured before. That’s according to new research from the American space agency NASA, the Hubble Space Telescope to Jupiter has checked out. The cause of the shrinkage is not known.

The Great Red Spot is a storm, which can be seen from Earth with telescopes. The wind pulls out speeds of up to 680 kilometers per hour. It is not known how long the storm already raging. In the 17th century, astronomers saw the stain as possible all. A few years ago, swallowed the storm a smaller storm.

In the late 19th century, the stain was still about 41,000 miles in diameter. That means that the Earth would fit. Three times in Around 1980, the average was only 23 335 kilometers. The storm turned shrank further in 2009, to almost 18,000 kilometers and is therefore 16,500 miles.

Between 1996 and 2006, the spot was a daily kilometer smaller. Now that’s three times as much. If that would constantly go through is the hallmark of Jupiter a few decades away. Scientists do not dare to say whether it really may come so far or not.